Historical sites and monuments

The description of historical sites and monuments

Guided tour round Veliky Novgorod. - An excursion round Veliky Novgorod, one of the most ancient cities of Russia. There is no other city in Russia that preserved so many monuments of architecture, and monumental painting of XII-XVII centuries, like Veliky Novgorod. By right, it is called the city-museum of the Ancient Russia.

The Novgorod Kremlin. - The monument of Russian architecture of X-XVII centuries. The ensemble of buildings makes the walk round the Kremlin pleasant and fascinating. The Kremlin was the nucleus and the heart of the ancient town, made its silhouette and planning. The Kremlin, or Detinets, as it was called in ancient times was the civic, public and religious centre. Here “Veche” (the General Assembly of Novgorod) took place, the election of posadnik (the head of the executive power), from Kremlin armed forces of Alexander Nevsky started for the battle with Swedes. The Kremlin walls protected St. Sophia’s cathedral and the residence of Novgorod ruler.
St-Sophia’s Cathedral (1045-1050) - the oldest dressed stone church of Russia. Prince Yaroslav the Wise laid the foundation and his son Prince Vladimir built it as the church of the whole city. Architects from Byzantium and Kiev who erected that main and the only cathedral in the city in the XI century, showed the essence of Novgorodian character that is: restraint, verging on severity, scale of intentions and power.
St Sophia’s Belfry. First mentioned in the chronicle of the XV century. Close to the belfry more than once was totally rebuilt, and nowadays rather is a monument of the XVII century. Close to the belfry, the ancient bells cast in the XVI-XVII centuries are placed on a pedestal.
St. Andreas Stratilates Church . A tiny church appeared in the south-eastern area of the citadel by the end of the  XVII  century or the early XVIII century. Inside, the fragments of frescoes have been preserved that are distinguished by the ample ornamental motifs.
Monument “Millennium of Russia”.-(1862) is located in the centre of the Kremlin. The composition of the monument represents a thousand year history of Russia. The general solution was admitted by all without exception as a successful one. The monument’s silhouette associates with two important symbols of Russian and Novgorod history- The cap of Monomach and Vechevoj bell. The division of the monument into three registers made it possible to translate a famous formulation of the official doctrine of that time “Orthodoxy, autocracy, national character” into the language of culture.
Gold Treasury of Velikiy Novgorod a unique exhibition of “Russian Decorative, Applied and Jeweler’s Art” of the XI-XIX centuries. The exhibition is represented by church plates and goods of secular character. The exhibition is located in Kremlin, in the ancient commercial building dressed in stone.
Russian Icon of the XI-XIX Centuries In the Collection of Novgorod Museum. The Novgorod United State Museum-Preserve possesses a unique collection of Russian icons, comprising ca. 1,500 icons of XI- early XX centuries. The world-largest exhibition on ancient Russian icon-painting of the XI-XIX centuries is placed in the building of former Administrative Offices. The core of the collection is made up by the icons, originated from main cloisters and churches of Velikiy Novgorod and its environs, and featuring the stylistic individuality of Novgorod easel painting. 14 halls harbor 268 icons, the majority of which was created in the most important local icon-painting workshops – before all, at the Archbishop’s workshop of Sofiyskiy (st. Sophia) Cathedral.
The History Museum.-The history of the ancient Novgorod is represented by unique archeological finds (household utensils, the famous original beresta missives of Novgorod, knick-knackery, clothes), a magnificent collection of the Novgorod icons. The museum is located within the Kremlin.
The Museum of Fine Arts. - The collection of Russian XVIII-XX centuries painting. In the building of the Former Nobility Assembly of the XIX century. Now, the exposition is represented by works of Russian painters of the XVIII-XX centuries , such as Antropov, Rokotov, Tropinin, Shishkin, Korovnikov, Rerich, Serov, Kustodiev, Petrov-Vodkin; sculpture, graphic arts and Applied Decorative Art of the XVIII-XX centuries.
The Yaroslav Estate and Former Marketplace. - the political and economic centre of the ancient Novgorod republic, got it’s name because of the palace of Yaroslav The Wise, that was located there in the XI century. The Marketplace adjoined The Yaroslav Estate and in the XVI century it consisted of 42 rows of stall and a couple of landing stages, stretched out along the river Volchov. The marketplace was the most brisk place of Novgorod, merchants from other countries were received here, and later here took place foreign Gothic and German courts. By request of Novgorodian and foreign merchants the building of churches launched here. Now, The Yaroslav Estate and the Marketplace is the architectural complex, consisting of numerous churches of XII-XVI centuries, and one of the most beautiful squares of the city.
St. Parasceve Pyatnitsa Church “Na Torgu (At the Market)” (1207) It was built at the expense of foreign merchants. The stone building was preceded by the frequently renovated wooden ones. The church reminds the architectural monuments of Smolensk, for instance, a prince’s palace church of Archangel Michael (end of the XII c.)
St. Nicholas Cathedral (1113). The oldest building on grounds of Yaroslav’s Courtyard and the first stone edifice at the Torgovaya (Trade) Side. The history of the church’s erection concerns a miraculous gaining of the icon of St. Nicholas.
Our Saviour’s Transfiguration Church At Nereditsa (1198). This world-famous church is the only edifice that has survived of a small Neredetskiy Monastery; at it grounds there is a village now. The church was built by Prince Yaroslav Vladimirivich on the death of all his children.
St. Theodor Strailates Church In Shchirkova Streetm (12922-1294). It is the only ancient temple of the numerous stone churches mentioned in the chronicles that has survived until nowadays in Novgorod’s Nerevskiy End within an earthen rampart. The history of the church dates back to the remote pre-Mongol age; it is based on a most ancient temple of Novgorod.
Our Savior’s Transfiguration Church At Kovalevo (1345). The church was painted in 1380. In 1941-1944, the temple happened to get into the front line and was ruined; instead of the splendid wall painting that covered the area of 350 sq.m, the architects afterwards found only about half million fragments of crushed stone. Only the perfect skills and titanic work of the restorers breathed the life into the church itself (architect L. Krasnorechyev) and its painting (restorers: the Grekov)
Uspeniya (Assumprion) Church At Volotovo Field (1352). As per the first Novgorod chronicle, the church was built in 1352 by the order of Archbishop Moisey, and in 1363, its walls were covered by painting. The church is worldwide-recognized, not only due to its architectural value, but also for the unique frescoes – there were about 200 pictorial compositions. In the first months of the Great Patriotic War, the monument was demolished. The restoration of this unique monument was carried out in 2001-2003, with the fragments of the ancient painting preserved on the walls.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of the Sign (The Znamensky cathedral), XVII century.-Was erected in late XVII century specifically to house the icon sacred to the entire city-the icon of Annunciation that have saved Novgorod from invasion by the men of Suzdal. In this cathedral the frescos of craftsmen from Kostroma of the XVII century are preserved. In this cathedral the concerts of sacred and classic music are held.
The Church of the Transfiguration of Our Saviour (1374).  One of the most ancient and respected churches, and a typical sample of Novgorod architecture of the XIV century. The inner painting was made in 1378 and partially survived. Allegedly, it held a sacred object: the Our Lady of the Sign icon that protected the city from the Town Suzdal forces’ assault in 1169. In 1374, the wooden church were replaced by the stone one. It is the only monumental project of the great Byzantine artist Theophane the Greek
Sts Peter and Paul Church In Kozhevniki (1406). One of the Finest Novgorod temples, it was built due to the donations of the artisans-tanners (kozhevniki). The church is richly adorned by the decorative details, and is not plastered, which provides for the ability to watch the appearance of an oldtimer Russian temple. The ancient icons once belonged to the church are now kept in the Kremlin museum.
Church of St Theodore Stratilates. (1361)-The church is a classic example of Novgorod architecture. Its most restoration uncovered fragments of a fresco in which techniques were used that have much in common with those of Theophanes the Greek.
The Ensemble of St Anthony’s Monastery. - The monuments of the ancient Novgorod architecture of XII-XVII centuries. The most prominent is the Cathedral of the Nativity of The Mother of God, built in XII century; there the original XII century murals can still be seen.
THEATRE OF TIME: TROITSKY EXCAVATION SITE For three year Troitsky excavation site – the greatest archeological site in Europe – has been open for public display. Here and nowhere else Novgorodians and guests of the city get a chance to embark on a trip into the past, travel back to the 10th century, step on a subsoil, see the past of the city that has been congealed in the cultural layers of Novgorod and watch the “performance” of the Theatre of Time. Every day brings a new discovery. The oldest Slavic book made of waxed tablets, Novgorod Psaltyri  (book of Psalms) of the early 11th century, more than 400 birch bark letters, over 20 mansion houses of the 10th-15th century, including the 12th century Studio of the painter Olisey Grechi are among the famous findings. Anyone can become an archeologist and uncover own finding as a souvenir. (may-october)
Handicraft workshop in the House of the Folk Art. - Way of life and traditions of Novgorod: visiting of handicraft workshops (folk suite, weaving, birch bark wickerwork, traditional folk toy), exhibitions of (samovar, embroidery, folk handicraft) +master-class (production of Russian folk toys, weaving, making photos in folk suits and head-dresses)

The nearest neighborhoods of Veliky Novgorod.

RURIK’S HILL FORT. As a fortified settlement of the Viking Age it has been located at the source of the Volkhov River right on the trade route “From the Varangians to the Greeks”.  There was a residence of Rurik the Prinse who started the first Russian ruling dynasty.  In 862 he was  summoned to  govern by Novgorodians. The archeological excavation around the fortress, dwellings and utility structures of the 9th-10th cc. proved Rurik’s Hill Fort to be that very “Old city” that had preceded the city of Novgorod established in the Age of Adaption to Christianity (the late 10th – early 11th cc.). In the centre of the Hill Fort there are ruins of the Cathedral of the Annunciation that was erected by the Prince  Mstislav the Great in 1103 and then reconstructed in the 14th c/ Being the centre of the most important events in the Novgorod political history, the Hill Fort hosted rulers up till the age of Ivan the Terrible (the Forth). The Annunciation Cathedral along with St. George Monastery on the other side of the Volchov River both formed into the stately gateway on the water course to Novgorod.
Yuryev Monastery. Founded by Yaroslav the Wise in Xi century. Is situated in 4 km. from Novgorod, on the bank of the Ilmen Lake. In 1989 was handed to the Novgorod eparchy and functions more that 10 years. On the territory of the Monastery St. George Cathedral is situated- the unique monument of architecture of XII century, served as a sepulcher for the princes.
The Museum of Wooden Architecture “Vitoslavlitsi”. - Architectural and natural open-air museum. Is situated near The Yuryev Monastery. The Museum recreates the image of Russian village and shows the way of life of Russian peasants. Within the Museum the chapels and churches of the VI-VIII centuries, and also peasant and household buildings are presented. The furniture, collected in expeditions, house-hold utensils and other significant things that made up the peasant’s way of life at that time. The two-story house of the first quarter of the 19th century, built for Countess A. Orlova-Chesmenskaya, houses a stationary exhibition entitled "Folk Art of the Novgorod Region."
Viazhisky Monastery of St Nicholas-The monastery is located in 12 km from Veliky Novgorod and represents a wonderful architecture ensemble of XVI century. It is now a nunnery. An excursion gives an opportunity to see the monastic way of life, to know better the history of church, to attend a divine service.
Khoutyn Monastery of the Transfiguration of Our Saviour. - The monastery is located in 8 km from Novgorod. Was founded by St. Varlaamius. He laid the foundation of the Church of the Transfiguration and the nunnery. Was greatly damaged during the World War II, but was reconstructed and returned to the Orthodox Church.